這是我在網路上看到有關ergativity的文章 當然也有說到ergative language的一些概念
2. http://www.math.uic.edu/~ronan/ergativity ← 個人覺得這個很好懂
Kyle 仁盈 (被Miss新剖說感覺很悠閒的人 = =, not at all 好嗎 哈哈)
註：大部分菲律賓語為作格語言 (ergative language) ，其不及物動詞的主詞和及物動詞的受詞在構詞的格位變化上是一致的。而受格語言 (accusative language) ，例如英語，其不及物動詞的主詞和及物動詞的主詞在構詞的格位變化上是一致的。
註：在受格語言 (accusative language) 之被動結構中，例如英語的被動句型，其原主動結構之主詞降為斜格（即為介繫詞 by 後之名詞組），變成一種不及物結構；而在作格語言 (ergative language) 中，也有將原受詞降為斜格的句型，也變成一種不及物結構，所以叫作反被動句型 (antipassive) 。
** 剛好 Google 看到 Ergative Lg 的資料~~幫補充囉...嘻嘻....^^
In the English language, an ergative verb is a verb whose action affects the subject, rather than the object, of the verb. Another way to describe this is that a normal verb's patient is its object, whereas an ergative verb's patient is its subject. Often, but not always, ergative verbs take no direct object. Some verbs can act as either a regular transitive verb or an ergative verb.
Examples of ergative-only verbs:
Examples of verbs that can be ergative or transitive:
The door opens.
John opens the door.
I ate a hamburger.
** 再補充 : Traces of ergativity in English
Traces of ergativity in English
English does show a trace of something that could be regarded as ergativity. With an intransitive verb, adding the suffix -ee to the verb produces a label for the person performing the action:
- "John has retired." → "John is a retiree."
- "John has escaped." → "John is an escapee."
- "John is standing." → "John is a standee."
However, with a transitive verb, adding -ee does not produce a label for the person doing the action. Instead, it gives us a label for the person to whom the action is done:
- "Mike employs Susie." → "Susie is an employee."
- "Mike has inducted Susie." → "Susie is an inductee."
- "Mike has appointed Susie" → "Susie is an appointee."
The differing effect of the -ee suffix, depending on the transitivity of the verb, can be considered ergativity.