下面資料是老師說要找的有關creak voice補充資料..

I.Definition about creak voice

 Ladefoged (2001) notes that creaky voice"occurs at the ends of falling intonations for some speakers of English," (125) even though English has no laryngealized phonemes. There is, though, no discussion of the functions of creaky voice in languages where it is not distinctive. 

 

 Other scholars have suggested that creaky voice can have communicative function  in English. Pittam (1987) suggests that, for Australian speakers, creaky voice indexes low solidarity and is associated with male speakers. Blount and Padgug   (1976) describe creaky voice as characteristic of English care-giver speech. Duncan and Fiske (1977) suggest that, when coupled with low pitch, creaky voice can signal the end of a conversational turn.

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II. Examples of creaky voice

 

From an interactional point of view, two works bear particular mention. Ogden

(2001) suggests that among Finnish speakers, creaky voice often co-occurs with syntactic completion, pragmatic completion, and sentence final intonation at the end of a turnconstructional unit (TCU; Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson 1974). Such a combination of potential turn-end markers indicates a Complex Transition Relevance Place (CTRP;  Kärkkäinen, Sorjonen and Helasvuo, to appear), where a current speaker typically gives way to a new speaker. This use of creaky voice contrasts with glottal stops, which are generally not treated as transition relevant, even when followed by a long pause.[phenomena of glottal stop] Furthermore, when creak co-occurs with one or more of these elements, but speaker transition is not affected, TRP is retracted by, for example, rushing through the next TCU.

 

 

Closure cut-off (which can, under the right conditions, be realized by glottal stop) is routinely used to initiate same-turn repair of the TCU-sofar,and to that extent projects more talk to come (the repair), the continuation of the TCU. Silences that may follow closure cut-off, before the resumption of phonation, get interpreted as belonging to the speaker,because she has not brought the turn to possible completion.

 

Thus, in English as in Finnish, glottal closure is not treated as transition relevant. It remains to be seen whether English speakers treat other glottal strictures, such as creaky voice, as marking transition places

 

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Other resources

 

http://www.assta.org/sst/2006/Keating%20SST%202006%20talk.ppt

[這是ppt,看起來更清楚…,必看喔..因為真的很詳細...]

 

http://blog.yam.com/omyfriend/article/2539359

[這是中文版的,也寫的很清楚….]

 from Helen...

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